Financial returns for different actors in a teak timber value chain in Paklay District, Lao PDR
Tek Narayan Marasenia,⁎, Somvang Phimmavongb, Rodney J. Keenanc, Vongvilay Vongkhamsaod, Geoff Cockfielda, Hilary Smithe
The Government of the Lao PDR has a range of policies, including the promotion of domestic processing and
discouraging the export of unprocessed wood, aimed at generating a greater share of benefits to all actors in the
value chain. There are however, limited studies of the structures, operations and effects of policies on, value
chains. This study aimed to compare financial returns to three different types of actors (growers, traders and a
sawmilling and wood products manufacturing company) in a teak value chain in Paklay District of Xayabuly
Province. The data were collected from two groups of growers on different site types, two timber traders and an
integrated sawmill and wood products manufacturer. These data were triangulated with, and supplemented by,
formal and informal interviews with other forest stakeholders in the district and province. Two silvicultural
regimes were compared, with a single thinning at 11 years and clearfell at 18 years on good riverside alluvial
sites, and 24 years on poorer, hillslopes sites. All sites were profitable for growers, as indicated by internal rates
of return. The net returns per cubic meter of final product for the manufacturer is 7.3–20.3 times higher than net
returns for the growers. Traders’ profits were considerably less than for the two other parts of the chain. Prices
for others in the chain are largely controlled by the manufacturer and collaboration and co-innovation between
the three actors is unlikely in the current environment. Possible options for increasing growers and traders’
incomes and improving value chain links are discussed.
Teak (Tectona grandis) silviculture and research: applications for smallholders in Lao PDR
A. N. A. Pachas , S. Sakanphet, S. Midgley & M. Dieters
Pages 94-105 | Received 28 Aug 2018, Accepted 16 Apr 2019, Published online: 16 Jun 2019
Teak is an important forest plantation species in Lao PDR (Laos), that has been planted extensively by smallholders, supplying domestic industries and international markets. There have been signiÕcant advances in the intensive silvicultural management of teak focused on the production of high-quality timber. Laos is not an exception. With support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, there have been advances in the understanding
and knowledge of appropriate management practices for smallholder teak, as well as
development of supporting technologies (i.e. ex situ conservation, genetic improvement, growth models, thinning and pruning prescriptions, and agroforestry systems). This paper summarises published information on the silviculture and management of teak, including improvement of genetic resources, stocking rate, thinning and agroforestry systems used in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania, and relates this to the current situation in northern Laos.
Teak plantation smallholders in Lao PDR:
what influences compliance with plantation
H. F. Smith, S. Ling & K. Boer
Past policies to promote the planting of trees by smallholders have been effective in Lao PDR. In
Luang Prabang Province over 15 000 ha of teak (Tectona grandis) have been established. New
policies to stop illegal logging, promote timber legality of wood exports and encourage domestic
wood processing aim to mobilise this teak resource as an alternative to timber from natural forests.
Several factors are thought to inhibit smallholder participation in the timber value chain and this
risks their exclusion from international markets. These factors include the hidden nature of their teak
plantation resource, inability to comply with complex regulations and limited capacity to engage
with markets. This paper explores the policy and regulatory environment for smallholder plantation
teak to understand how instrumental and normative factors may influence compliance with
plantation regulations and affect participation in new governance structures such as grower groups.
The results emphasise the need for policies, regulations and governance to take into account the
human factor if value chains that depend on smallholder plantations are to be effective.
KEYWORDS: smallholder; plantation; compliance; systems mapping; grower groups; teak; Lao PDR
The evolution of certified teak grower groups in Luang
Prabang, Lao PDR: An action research approach
Stuart Linga, Hilary Smithbc, Lamphoune Xayvongsad and Richard Laitye
Tree grower groups have been promoted by governments and development programs
worldwide as a means to generate income and improve the livelihoods of smallholders by
generating economies of scale and improving their bargaining power. In Luang Prabang
province, Lao PDR, three plantation teak grower groups were examined using an action
research approach over a four-year period between 2013 and 2016, with the aim of
fostering improved returns to group members. At the beginning of the study, it was
observed that despite the existence of a price premium from certification, the unpredictable
nature of sales, complex government regulations and the small contribution of teak to total
household incomes combined to thwart efforts by the group to sell trees on the regular
basis that would make membership worthwhile for growers. An intervention by group
members and researchers to develop an internally funded enterprise unit within the group
structure which added value to local timber proved to be technically feasible, although it is
still too early to judge its sustainability. However, this opportunity did not immediately
benefit smallholders since high entry costs, poor technical knowledge and low financial
transparency dissuaded group members from buying shares in the enterprise. Improved
returns to smallholders will likely occur in time as a result of local enterprises paying higher
prices for timber, rather than through active group membership.
Key words: smallholder; plantation; certification; forest enterprise.
The Evolution of Certified Teak Grower Groups
in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR: An Action Research
Stuart Ling1 • Hilary Smith2,3 • Lamphoune Xaysavongsa4 •
Accepted: 12 January 2018
Steve Harrison, John Herbohn 2018
Tree grower groups have been promoted by governments and development programs worldwide as a means to generate income and improve the livelihoods of smallholders by generating economies of scale and improving their
bargaining power. In Luang Prabang province, Lao PDR, three plantation teak
grower groups were examined using an action research approach over a 4-year
period between 2013 and 2016, with the aim of fostering improved returns to group
members. At the beginning of the study, it was observed that despite the existence of
a price premium from certification, the unpredictable nature of sales, complex
government regulations and the small contribution of teak to total household
incomes combined to thwart efforts by the group to sell trees on the regular basis
that would make membership worthwhile for growers. An intervention by group
members and researchers to develop an internally funded enterprise unit within the
group structure which added value to local timber proved to be technically feasible,
although it is still too early to judge its sustainability. However, this opportunity did
not immediately benefit smallholders since high entry costs, poor technical
knowledge and low financial transparency dissuaded group members from buying
shares in the enterprise. Improved returns to smallholders will likely occur in time
as a result of local enterprises paying higher prices for timber, rather than through
active group membership.
Keywords: Smallholder Plantation Certification Forest enterprise
The Evolution of Certified Teak Grower Groups in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR: An Action Research Approach
Comparing two internal check measurement methods for wood drying quality assessment
Khamtan Phonetip, Barbara Ozarska, Graham Ian Brodie
Internal checks that are created in the interior of lumber during or after timber drying seriously affect the quality and value of timber used for the production of high value wood products. This study compared two different methods of assessing wood drying quality, by using either an image analysis ImageJ or Digital Calliper technique, to determine the percentage loss of cross section due to internal checking. The study revealed that there was a signiﬁcant difference in the total area of internal checks, but the overall timber quality classes determined from both techniques were identical based on the Australian and New Zealand standard for timber quality assessment.
Full paper please visit link https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07373937.2018.1445638
Comparing two intermittent drying schedules for timber drying quality
Khamtan Phonetip, Barbara Ozarska, Benoit Belleville & Graham Ian Brodie
Intermittent drying techniques for drying timber may provide various benefits by improving timber quality and addressing energy efficiency through saving in energy consumption. The purpose of this study was to compare two intermittent drying schedules applied in the treatment of Eucalyptus delegatensis boards, through assessing surface and internal check development, moisture content (MC) profiles during drying, and timber distortions at the end of drying. The study used identical conditions during the heating phase at 45°C/60% relative humidity (RH), except for RH during the nonheating phase (80 and 90%). The results, discussed in this paper, analyzed the timber quality during and at the end of drying. The different RH during the nonheating phase did not generate a significant difference in MC at the case boards between the two drying schedules. The assessed quality of timber at the end of drying was based on AS/NZS 4787:2001. MC gradient, drying stress residual, internal checking and collapse were graded as class “A” (class A is the highest grade and D is the lowest). Bow, cupping, and spring were under the permissible levels based on grading standard AS 2082–2007. Measured data were validated using Drytek® simulation software showing MC movement in case boards.
Full paper please visit link https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07373937.2018.1445638
Drying timber in a solar kiln using an intermittent drying schedule of conventional laboratory kiln
The purpose of this study was to apply an intermittent drying schedule developed from a conventional kiln to a solar kiln. Implementing this experiment could help better understand the oscillation of the temperature inside a solar kiln and timber quality during drying progress. The theoretical recharge and discharge curves were used to predict the temperature inside the solar kiln using experimental data obtained previously using a solar kiln. The surface and internal checks were measured using ImageJ freeware, and the development of the Moisture Content (MC) profile was assessed by coring and slicing method for the Eucalyptus delegatensis boards during drying. The results showed that the recharge and discharge model can predict the temperature with less than 2 °C error from the experimental data in the solar kiln. The total drying time to 12% MC was 87 days for the solar kiln. The drying rate was equivalent to the conventional kiln decreasing at an average rate of 0.2% per day. The surface check formation was found when the MC gradient between the core and the case of the board was greater than 42% at 9 days of drying in the solar kiln and conventional laboratory kiln. The applied drying schedule used in the solar kiln was successful and offered similar drying time. However, the oscillation of temperature in the intermittent drying will require further improvement to get closer conditions in a solar kiln.
Full paper please visit link https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/8iSaKPQGVthRBwhyyeaI/full
Simulating Solar Kiln Conditions using a Conventional Kiln
Khamtan Phonetip, Graham Ian Brodie, Barbara Ozarska, Benoit Belleville
This study assessed the possibility of using a conventional laboratory kiln to simulate solar kiln conditions and developed a mathematical model to predict the timber quality and moisture content profile during drying. The simulated temperature in the kiln was modelled on the actual temperature of a solar kiln based on the climatic conditions of Vientiane, Laos. The modelling for moisture content profile in boards was implemented in Matlab codes, which combined fundamental equations and validated the model with measured data. Timber quality assessment was performed based on quality standard AS/NZS 4787 (2001). The simulation results were similar with the measured solar kiln temperatures to within less than 2 °C in a day. The modelling correctly described the MC profile decrease during the drying process when compared with measured data. Further work is required regarding the method of measuring the MC data and anatomical properties. Assessed against the standard, timber quality at the end of drying was all graded as Class “A”, and timber distortion was within permissible limits.
Full paper please visit link
Applying a GIS-based Fuzzy Method to Identify Suitable Locations for Solar Kilns
Khamtan Phonetip, Barbara Ozarska, Graham Ian Brodie, Benoit Belleville, Latsamy Boupha
The aim of this study was to identify suitable locations for solar kilns in Vientiane, the capital of Laos, based on geographical and climatic conditions and restricted areas. The criteria of the parameters, which were incorporated with Fuzzy membership functions, were used to create layers in the ArcGIS environment to draw maps of suitability. Climatic parameters, based on the Fuzzy method, were used to investigate the period of productive performance for solar kilns. The results showed a range of possible locations. The most suitable locations were in flat areas near roads. They were far from protected areas, rivers, and flood prone areas. The most productive performance period for operating solar kilns was from November until May.
Full paper please visit link http://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/Biores_13_2_2785_Phonetip_GIS_Fuzzy_Method_Solar_Kilns